Antifungal Activity of Phenolic and Polyphenolic Compounds from Different Matrices of Vitis vinifera L. against Human Pathogens
Phenolic compounds, the most widely distributed class of natural products in the plants, show several biological properties including antifungal activity. Phenolics contained in grapes can be classified in two main groups, flavonoids and non-flavonoids compounds. Variability and yield extraction of phenolic and polyphenolic compounds from different matrices of Vitis vinifera depends of cultivar, climate, soil condition and process technology. Unripe grapes, berry skins and seeds, leaves, canes and stems and not-fermented and fermented pomaces represent large reusable and valuable wastes from agricultural and agro-industrial processes. This review summarizes studies that examine the extraction method, chemical characterization, and antifungal activity of phenolic and polyphenolic compounds from edible and non-edible V. vinifera matrices against human fungal pathogens. In the world, around one billion people have fungal diseases related to skin, nail or hair and around 150 million have systemic diseases caused by fungi. Few studies on antifungal activity of plant extracts have been performed. This review provides useful information for the application of V. vinifera phenolics in the field of antifungals for human use.